What are the advantages of flash memory over hard disk storage? what

1. What are the advantages of flash memory over hard disk storage? What are the advantages of hard disk over flash memory storage? What are the advantages of both hard disk and flash memory storage over RAM? What is the major advantage of RAM over other types of storage?


2.  Clearly describe and discuss at least three advantages of clustering.


3.  Explain in detail why the average seek time for a hard disk is less than a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM.


4.  Cloud computing is a recent technology that is used as a means to provide off-site computing power to an organization. Locate information about cloud computing and compare cloud computing with grid computing. In what ways are they similar? How do they differ?



1.  Discuss the trade-offs between circuit switching, virtual circuit switching, and packet switching.


2. Answer the following about communication protocols:

(a) IP (Internet Protocol) is described as a “best-effort delivery service.”  What exactly does this mean? What is the consequence if the “best effort” fails? 

(b) Explain how UDP (User Datagram Protocol) differs from IP as a transport mechanism. 

(c) Finally, describe the added capability TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) provides for data transport.


3.  Your cousin has asked you to help her to design a small home network for her own use.

a) What are the important questions that you will need to ask as you start to consider your design? List at least three.

b) What are the critical components that you will need to specify in your design? List at least three.


4.  Explain the steps the Address Resolution Protocol takes to match an IP with a MAC address.


1.  In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission approved the commercial use of ultra wideband technology on February 14, 2002. Describe the features of UWB, including range, power requirements, data transfer rate, its typical applications, and at least one characteristic that differentiates it from ZigBee or Bluetooth. (NOTE: You’ll have to use the Web is answer this question.)


2.  Describe how noise differs from distortion. Explain how can noise and distortion be introduced into a transmission medium. Define signal-to-noise ratio and explain how it is used to gauge the reliability of data transmission.


3.  Describe the differences between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. Explain the reasons why CSMA/CA is used instead of CSMA/CD for wireless networks. 


4.  The current IP address standard is 32 bits.  IPv6 will increase the address length to 128 bits.  An IP socket address is a combination of an IP address and IP port number, usually written with the IP address first followed by a colon and the port number (for example,  An IP socket allows multiple hardware devices or software services to “listen” to different message streams sent to the same IP address. (HINT: See Module 5 section 4)


a. What is the URL name and dotted quad IP address of an Internet URL that you use? (It could be your ISP) 

b. What is the Network Class of the address? 

c. How did you determine the dotted quad address (i.e., what utility did you use to determine the address not how you converted it to binary)?


1.  Describe the two methods that are used to provide concurrent operations of multiple processes on a single CPU. What are the advantages of each method? If you were designing a I/O device to interface with a keyboard, which approach would you use and why?


2.  One approach to operating system design is to provide as small a kernel as possible and to make all other modules optional. What are the minimum services that must be provided in such a miniature kernel?


3.  Compare compilers and interpreters with respect to memory requirements for program execution and CPU requirements for program execution.


4.  The use of a CLI (command line interface) provides flexibility and power for the user who knows how to use the CLI effectively. But, effective usage of a CLI requires learning and deeper understanding of the system than that possessed by the typical user.  The average user will be more comfortable with the ease of use and consistency of a GUI (graphical user interface).  Once learned, the GUI can be navigated and manipulated rapidly. However, there are several capabilities that are easy to achieve with a GUI, but much more difficult with a CLI. Describe at least two of these capabilities.


5.  Nearly every operating system separates the file system from the I/O services.  Clearly describe at least two advantages in doing so.




For problems 1 and 2, a computer has the following four processes that have arrived in the ready queue in the sequence shown below. NOTE: Time slicing is not used, therefore, there are no mandatory time outs.

•Process 1 has a run time of 25 seconds, a priority of 1, and it will require 10 seconds of I/O after 10 seconds of execution.

•Process 2 has a run time of 20 seconds, a priority of 2, and it will require 10 seconds of I/O after 5 seconds of execution.

•Process 3 has a run time of 25 seconds and a priority of 2.

•Process 4 has a run time of 20 seconds and a priority of 1, and it will require 15 seconds of I/O after 10 seconds of execution.


 (HINT for problems 1 and 2: Review Module 6 section 2.1.2 for the definitions of these scheduling algorithms and Self-Assessment problems 1-4.) 


1.  If the Round Robin Scheduling algorithm is used, which process completes second and why? At what time does it complete?


2.  If the Round Robin with Priority Queues Scheduling algorithm is used, which process completes second and why? At what time does it complete?


3.  Explain the trade-offs between contiguous, noncontiguous linked, and noncontiguous indexed file allocation. In particular, note if each can be efficiently used for sequential and random access methods.


4.  Using a variable-partitioned multiprogramming memory, which of the four holes shown below will be used to satisfy a 55 KB program requirement under the conditions of: 


0-10 KB10-55 KB55-140 KB140-215 KB215-260 KB260-330 KB330-350 KB350-410 KB410-470 KB

occupiedHole AoccupiedHole BoccupiedHole CoccupiedHole Doccupied


___ First-fit 

___ Best-fit 

___ Worst-fit