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vulnerabilities are very similar when it comes to Nepal or any other similar developing countries. We already know a lot about different types of vulnerabilities from this course. I will try not to repeat myself. We can see from Dr. Cuadra’s video lecture that social vulnerabilities are easily distinguishable (Cuadra,2022). First of all, the population of Nepal is very poor. As mentioned in the lecture, it is an ethnic-based society. There are a lot of different ethnicities, sects, religions, casts. And people are treated differently depending on where they are belonging. I know, it is 2022 and sounds crazy but what you can do. Some people think that they are superior to others just because they belong to some sect. There should not be any room for discrimination, marginalization, and inequality in a society that wants to prosper. Economic factors are clear as the sky. A poor country that mainly depends on the agricultural sector and some tourism. Relying heavily on one industry with poor regulation makes people a lot more vulnerable to disasters. Physical vulnerabilities are probably the most distinguishable. The large rural sector with pour construction regulation and almost no roads. Economically struggling authorities set building standards for country regions and do not provide finances to implement the standards on the level required for disaster-prone countries (Grunewald,6). As you know, building standards in highly seismic areas are the most strict and not easy to implement. Not only from a financial standpoint but from a construction standpoint. Where are you going to finds experienced trades with equipment and knowledge required to build a multi-level house per the highest seismic region standards per 7.8 magnitudes (Bhagat,1861)? Especially in Nepal. So, authorities have to be cognitive of that and not just assume that what is in the books is going to be in reality unless it is supervised vigilantly.

Physical factors had a big impact after the earthquake. Many buildings were damaged causing casualties, and help could not get to rural areas on time because of a lack of transportation infrastructure. The economical sector got hurt badly because tourism was a big part of it and many tourist locations were damaged. Also, it took a lot longer for rescue teams to get to rural sectors.     

Cuadra, J. (2022). Week 14 Hazards and Development: Nepal Gorkha Earthquake 2015 Video Lecture. https://canvas.fsu.edu/courses/188584/pages/gorkha-earthquake-nepal-video-lecture?module_item_id=3572406

Grunewald, F. (2016).  Nepal Earthquake: a rapid review of the response and a few lessons learned. (p.6 ).

Chapter 3 and 4. Groupe, U.R.D.

Bhagat, S. (2018).  Damage to Cultural Heritage Structure and Buildings Due to the 2015 Nepal Gorkha. (p.1861). Journal of Earthquake Engineering 2018, Vol 22, No.10,1861-1880