Please read the requirement and write the essay

You should consult Robert B. Marks, The Origins of the Modern World: Fate and Fortune in the Rise of the West Roman and Littlefield, 4th or 3rd edition(Chaps 3) and David Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, 1999, W.W.Norton (Chaps 9 and Chap 10, pp173-85), and the lecture slides as you write your essays. Please read Dutch Golden Age Chaps 9-10 slides. 

1. In the Dutch Golden Age, markets were more fully developed in the United Provinces than anywhere else in Europe. What kinds of markets existed? Why were they more fully developed than elsewhere? (Think about what markets need.)

2. What advantages did the United Provinces have over Portugal in their efforts to gain profits from their activities in the Indian Ocean? In other words, why were the Dutch able to replace the Portuguese as the dominant European power in the Indian Ocean?