Ashford lib 323 entire class week 1-5- a+ graded (latest version)

Ashford 2: – Week 1 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

As indicated in Chapter 1 of the text, defining terrorism has proven to be a difficult task. Why do you think this is the case? After reading the text, provide your own definition of terrorism. Include historical examples of terrorism that support your definition. Also, provide an example of terrorism that does not fit neatly into your definition. Identify and explain three difficulties, or “sticking points,” faced by scholars in defining terrorism. How could these difficulties be addressed? Is terrorism subjective in nature, or can it be clearly defined? Do different cultures define this term in different ways? Be sure to explain your answer.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.

 

Michael McNeil

Week 1: Discussion 1

Defining Terrorism 

     How do we define terrorism? What is it? Today, as always, terrorism has one of the most controversial definitions because of the various aspects and perspectives. It is difficult because there is no right or wrong way to define terrorism. According to studies, terrorism is “an intentional, unlawful, violent act targeting civilian persons or property and which appears to be for the purpose of intimidating or coercing a population by instilling fear or influencing the policy of a government (Falk, 2009).Terrorism as we know, can be either international or domestic, also known as “home grown” terrorist. 

     In my own words, I would say that terrorism could be threats or actions carried out to fulfill a personal agenda. Not too long ago in our history, on the eleventh day of September, 2011, an event occurred that shocked the world and forever changed the way we handle business here on the home front. The destruction of the World Trade Center caused thousands of deaths and was a sucker punch we never seen coming. Terrorist acts such as this are carried out through various terrorist networks. In this case, the terrorist organization known as Al Qaida claimed responsibility and had no remorse for the havoc they had caused. Many terrorist networks have different beliefs and religions, but at the end of the day, the goal is to commit acts of terrorism. 

     One type of terrorism that I have experienced first-hand that one may not perceive as “terrorism,” is the current war on drugs. I completed 2 years doing counter narcotic terrorism operations in Central and South America. When you look at my personal definition it really doesn’t fit the exact description, right? But, when you work with it as close as I did, you truly see the effects of the drug war. People are killed, lives are destroyed, and governments become corrupt, all deriving from drugs and the pursuit of money…that to me, is terrorism.   

     Terrorism is subjective in nature and is very challenging to define because of the broad range of targets, motives, and methods used in various cases. Scholars and experts must detangle the vagueness of these techniques, maybe creating a specific category to include specifics of terrorisms, derived from past acts of terrorism so that we may have a clear definition in the future. Also, I believe most cultures see terrorism similar to how we define it, but there are some cultures that believe terrorism is committed for the greater good…religious beliefs. Terrorism is an issue that plagues our world almost every day. You never know when or where a terrorist organization is going to strike. The various terrorist groups commit acts of terrorism for various reasons, some for political or religious reasons, and others for hatred (Sloan, 2006). There are many differing definitions on terrorism. What is terrorism? How do we define it? Why is one man’s act of terrorism another man’s freedom? These are just a few of the questions that face the world on a daily basis. 

References: 

Falk, O. & Morgenstern, H. (Ed.). (2009). Suicide terror: Understanding and confronting the threat.  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 

Sloan, S. (2006). Terrorism: The Present Threat. New York, NY: Berg. Retrieved from Ashford University Library Ebook Collection, Ipswich, MA. 

Spindlove, J. R. & Simonsen, C. E. (2013). Terrorism today: The past, the players, the future (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

 

 

Ashford 3: – Week 2 (Nov 25 – Dec 01)

Overview 

Assignment

Due Date

Format

Grading Percent

Discussion 1: Domestic Terrorism in the United States

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Discussion 2: Radical Islam and the Threat to the United States

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Assignment: The U.S.A. Patriot Act

 Day 7

 Assignment

10

 

Note: The online classroom is designed to time students out after 90 minutes of inactivity. Because of this, we strongly suggest that you compose your work in a word processing program and copy and paste it into the discussion post when you are ready to submit it.

Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  1. Evaluate the motivation behind various forms of domestic terrorism within the United States.
  2. Analyze the causes of international terrorist activities that have targeted the United States in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
  3. Summarize critical portions of the U.S.A. Patriot Act and infer whether this legislation is beneficial or harmful to American society.

 

Introduction

This week, students will focus on terrorism that targets the United States.  Students will explain the various forms of domestic or “home-grown” terrorism that have taken place over the past century.  The motives, execution, and results of several domestic terrorism incidents will also be analyzed.  Students will also identify which group (or groups) poses the greatest threat to American society.  Additionally, international terrorist attacks, which have proven to be the greatest threat faced by the United States, will be examined, and the threat levels of both state and non-state actors will be identified and evaluated.  Finally, students will summarize the U.S.A. Patriot Act as it applies to terrorism, and argue either for or against the legality of this legislation.

 

Required Resources

Required Text

  1. Terrorism Today: The Past, The Players, The Future
    1. Chapter 3 – The United States of America  

Articles

  1. United States Department of Justice.  (n.d.). Highlights of the USA Patriot Act. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/highlights.htm.

 

Recommended Resources

Articles

  1. Uniting and Strengthening America By Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of 2001. Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272.  (2001). Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ56/pdf/PLAW-107publ56.pdf.(This is the full and official text of the Patriot Act, which will benefit students in writing their Week Two Essay.)

Discussions

To participate in the following discussions, go to this week’s Discussion link in the left navigation.

  1. Domestic Terrorism in the United States

Terrorism that originates within the United States and is committed by American citizens is a facet of our history that has often been overlooked.  Following the attacks on the United States that were perpetrated by radical Islamists, discussions of terrorism have tended to focus on those incidents that stem from groups with ties to Middle East extremists.  For this discussion, we will focus on terrorist acts and groups that are considered “home grown.”  In your initial post, please address the following:

    1. In your own words, provide a definition of domestic terrorism.
    2. Select a group that facilitates (or has facilitated) domestic terrorism and briefly comment on their goals and actions.
    3. Provide an opinion as to whether or not domestic terrorism is a viable threat to the stability of the United States. Explain your reasoning. 

Your initial post is due by Day 3 and must be at least 250 words in length.  In addition to the text, you must utilize one scholarly source from the Ashford University Library in your post.  Review several of your classmates’ posts and provide substantive responses to at least two of your peers by Day 7 who selected different groups than you did. 

  1. Radical Islam and the Threat to the United States 

Radical Islam is widely perceived to be the greatest international threat to the United States in terms of terrorism.  Do you agree or disagree with this assertion?  Provide reasons to support your position.  If radical Islam does not pose the most significant international terroristic threat to the United States, what does?

Your initial post is due by Day 3 and must be at least 250 words in length.  In addition to the text, you must utilize one scholarly source from the Ashford University Library in your post.  Review several of your classmates’ posts and provide substantive responses to at least two of your peers by Day 7, one of whom has expressed an opinion that is different from yours.

Assignment

To complete the following assignment, go to this week’s Assignment link in the left navigation. 

The U.S.A. Patriot Act

The U.S.A. Patriot Act has generated controversy ever since it was passed into law shortly after the attacks of September 11, 2001.  Advocates argue that this legislation is a vital tool required by law enforcement to effectively fight and prevent future acts of terror against the United States.  However, opponents of the law are concerned that it legalizes an erosion of the civil liberties of American Citizens.  In your paper, please address the following:

  1. Summarize the origins and development of the Act in Congress to include its support and opposition, reauthorizations, and amendments.
  2. Select three to five provisions of the Act that you consider to be the most controversial and explain the arguments on both sides.
  3. Provide an overall assessment of whether the Patriot Act has been beneficial or detrimental to American society. 

The paper must be at least three double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference page) and formatted according to APA style. In addition to the two required readings, you must use at least one scholarly resource to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

 

 

Ashford 4: – Week 3 (Dec 02 – Dec 08)

Overview

 

Assignment

Due Date

Format

Grading Percent

Discussion 1: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Discussion 2: Chechen Terrorism in Russia

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Assignment: Annotated Bibliography

 Day 7

 Assignment

10

 

Note: The online classroom is designed to time students out after 90 minutes of inactivity. Because of this, we strongly suggest that you compose your work in a word processing program and copy and paste it into the discussion post when you are ready to submit it.

Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  1. Analyze the conflict in Northern Ireland during the twentieth century.
  2. Categorize the conflict between Russia and Chechnya and contrast the resolution of this conflict with that in Northern Ireland.
  3. Create an annotated bibliography that demonstrates strong research skills and technical writing proficiency. 

 

Introduction

In Week Three, students will explain how the conflict in Northern Ireland originated and identify the primary players who were involved.  Additionally, students will assess the manner in which this conflict was ended and interpret the impact of conflict resolution theories on the outcome.  Students will also examine the conflict between Russia and Chechnya and will provide opinions regarding whether the unrest in this area is a result of terrorism or revolutionary activity.  Students will also compare and contrast this conflict with the one that took place in Northern Ireland.   Finally, students will select their topics for the Final Paper and create an annotated bibliography of sources they intend to utilize for the essay.

 

Required Resources

Required Text

  1. Terrorism Today: The Past, The Players, The Future 
    1. Chapter 5 – Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Articles

  1. Hughes, J. (2007). The Chechnya conflict: Freedom fighters or terrorists? Demokratizatsiya, 15(3), 293-311. Retrieved from the ProQuest database.

 

Recommended Resources

Text

  1. Terrorism Today: The Past, The Players, The Future 
    1. Chapter 7 – Eastern Europe and the Balkan

      (This chapter will provide supplemental information that may be used for the “Chechen Terrorism in Russia” discussion question.)

  2. U.S. Army. (2007).  Terror operations: Case studies in terrorism (TRADOC GD Handbook No. 1.01). Retrieved from: https://www.fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/sup1.pdf
    1. Chapter 6 – Beslan: Hostage Crisis and Mass Murder 

      (This chapter provides supplemental information that may be used for the “Chechen Terrorism in Russia” discussion question.)

Multimedia

  1. Sim, K. (Director & Producer).  (2005). Beslan: Siege of School No. 1. [Television series episode].  In S. Segaller (Executive producer). Wide angle. New York, NY: Educational Broadcasting Corporation (WNET).  Retrieved from the Films On Demand database

    (This film provides students with an overview of the results of terrorism.)

 

Discussions

To participate in the following discussions, go to this week’s Discussion link in the left navigation.

  1. The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland

    Northern Ireland has a long history of violence between various groups that possess disparate political and religious objectives and argue, primarily, over who should have governmental control of the country. Today, however, this violence has ostensibly come to an end, and Northern Ireland is relatively peaceful.  For this discussion, please address the following questions:

    1. How did the dispute in Northern Ireland originate?
    2. Who were/are the key groups in this dispute?
    3. What were two key events in this conflict during the twentieth century?
    4. How was peace eventually achieved?
    5. Would you consider the conflict a “revolution” or a series of terrorist actions?  Why?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Provide a substantive response to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.

 

  1. Chechen Terrorism in Russia 

    Violence between the Russian Federation and Chechnya has been a problem in the North Caucasus region since the collapse of the Soviet Union.  This violence has included two wars, utilizing conventional Russian military forces to engage Chechen fighters as well as numerous operations conducted against Russian civilians by Chechens within Russia itself.  As with the conflict in Northern Ireland, this violence has generally come to an end.  After completing the reading and viewing the video about this incident, please address the following in your initial post:

    1. What impact did religion, culture, and political considerations have on the origins of this conflict?
    2. What prompted Russian forces to launch two large scale military operations into Chechnya?
    3. What impact did the attack at Beslan School Number One have on the conflict?
    4. Was this attack a legitimate military action considering the circumstances in Chechnya?
    5. Should Chechen forces be considered terrorists?  Why or why not?
    6. Why did the conflict in Chechnya de-escalate, and how does this de-escalation compare to that in Northern Ireland?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.  Review several of your classmates’ posts and provide substantive responses by Day 7 to at least two of your peers whose opinions differ from yours.

 

Assignment

To complete the following assignment, go to this week’s Assignment link in the left navigation. 

Annotated Bibliography

To complete this assignment successfully, review the instructions for the Final Paper in Week Five. The intent of this assignment is to assist you in organizing and evaluating potential scholarly sources for the Final Paper.

  1. Name of the article, including the complete bibliographic citation, using APA format.
  2. Summary/abstract of the article – annotation (sometimes it is helpful to ask yourself the following questions in synthesizing the information:

·         Who? (author)

·         What was done? (for example, an experimental study investigating the interaction of short term memory and attention)

·         How? (was it done)

·         What were the findings? (identify the major ones)

·         Contributions? (New findings, applications, etc.)

·         How will this article support or dispute my thesis?

To conduct accurate research, you need to do research in peer-reviewed journals or other sources that are considered to have reliable information. In addition to your required course text, you need at least six professional scholarly sources, three of which must be peer reviewed journal articles found in the Ashford University Library. 

Academic research papers must meet university level standards of quality. What constitutes quality, academic research?

  1. Primary sources written by experts in the field of study
  2. Secondary sources supported by research in primary sources
  3. Credible sources (experts in the area of study)
  4. Relevant research (materials are pertinent to the area of study)
  5. Peer-reviewed journal articles (journal articles reviewed by recognized experts in the relevant field of study).
  6. Educational and government websites (those ending with a web URL suffix of .edu or .gov) may be appropriate in some cases but should be evaluated carefully.

Please visit the Academic Research section on your course homepage (accessible through the Student Responsibilities and Policies tab on the left navigation toolbar) to review what types of materials are not acceptable for academic, university level research. 

The paper must be formatted according to APA style and include a title page. For information regarding annotated bibliographies and APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

 

 

Ashford 5: – Week 4 (Dec 09 – Dec 15)

Overview

 

Assignment

Due Date

Format

Grading Percent

Discussion 1: Terrorism in Israel

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Discussion 2: Islamic Extremists in the Middle East

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Assignment: The Arab Spring and Terrorism

 Day 7

 Assignment

10

 

Note: The online classroom is designed to time students out after 90 minutes of inactivity. Because of this, we strongly suggest that you compose your work in a word processing program and copy and paste it into the discussion post when you are ready to submit it.

Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  1. Summarize the role that Israel has played in Middle Eastern terrorism.
  2. Analyze the origins, goals, and methods of an Islamic terrorist group.
  3. Analyze the impact of the Arab Spring on the state and non-state sponsored terrorism in the region.

 

Introduction

In Week Four, students will gain a deeper understanding of the causes of terrorism in the Middle East and of the groups that utilize terror as a political weapon.  Students will also define Israel’s role in this violence.  In addition, various prominent Islamic terrorist groups will be examined to better understand their origins, structures, and activities.  The written assignment will focus on the Arab Spring and its impact on terrorism in the region.

Required Resources

Required Text

  1. Terrorism Today: The Past, The Players, The Future 
    1. Chapter 8: North Africa and the Middle East

Articles

  1. Dettmer, J. (2012). So much for the Arab Spring. Maclean’s, 125(38), 32-35. Retrieved from the EbscoHost database. 

 

Discussions

To participate in the following discussions, go to this week’s Discussion link in the left navigation.

  1. Terrorism in Israel

    The state of Israel has been engaged with Islamic terrorists since its inception and recognition as a country.  However, even prior to the establishment of Israel, Jewish and Arab fighters engaged in acts of violence in British-occupied Palestine.  For your initial post, address the following:

    1. Prior to Israeli independence, against whom did Jewish fighters commit acts of violence?  Why?
    2. In your opinion, were Jewish actions during this period acts of terrorism or of self-defense?  Support your answer with your definition of terrorism.
    3. Are Israeli military actions against peoples in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and surrounding Arab countries simply state-sponsored terrorism?  Why or why not?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Review several of your classmates’ posts and provide substantive responses by Day 7 to at least two of your peers whose opinions differ from yours.

 

  1. Islamic Extremists in the Middle East 

    Numerous Islamic terrorist groups have been active in the Middle East in recent decades.  For your initial post, select one of these groups and describe how they have impacted the political landscape of the Middle East.  What motivates this group?  Who are their primary economic and material sponsors?  Extrapolate what the ultimate goal of this group is and explain whether this goal achievable.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Review several of your classmates’ posts and provide substantive responses by Day 7 to at least two of your peers whose opinions differ from yours.

 

Assignment

To complete the following assignment, go to this week’s Assignment link in the left navigation. 

The Arab Spring and Terrorism

After completing this week’s readings, compose a short essay that addresses the following:

  1. Briefly describe what took place during the political movement known as the Arab Spring and indicate which countries were affected.
  2. Analyze the impact of this movement on one of these countries in terms of political and social change.
  3. Determine if this movement will increase or decrease the amount of terrorism activity emanating from the country you selected and suppo1rt your thesis.
  4. Provide an overall analysis of the impact of the Arab Spring on the state and non-state sponsored terrorism in the region.

The paper must be at least three double-spaced pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least one scholarly resource (in addition to the two required readings) to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

 

 

Ashford 6: – Week 5 (Dec 16 – Dec 22)

Overview

 

Assignment

Due Date

Format

Grading Percent

Discussion 1: State Terrorism in Latin America

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Discussion 2: Latin America and Islamic Jihad

Day 3

(1st post)

Discussion

4

Assignment: Combating Future Terrorism

Day 7 

Final Paper

 20

 

Note: The online classroom is designed to time students out after 90 minutes of inactivity. Because of this, we strongly suggest that you compose your work in a word processing program and copy and paste it into the discussion post when you are ready to submit it.

Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  1. Interpret the relationship between state terrorism and the government in various Latin American countries.
  2. Analyze the connection between Latin America and Islamic jihad.
  3. Evaluate the modern response to modern terrorism.

 

Introduction

The discussions for this week will center upon Latin America and the concept of state terrorism.  Students will examine the characteristics of this type of terrorism, determine factors that have contributed to its existence, and provide an opinion as to if state terrorism could emerge in the United States. Students will also examine the relationship between Latin America and Islamic jihad and explore possible means that could eliminate this connection. The Final Paper is due by Day 7.

 

Required Resources

Required Text

  1. Terrorism today: the past, the players, the future 
    1. Chapter 13 – Latin America and South America

Articles

  1. Blanche, E. (2003) AL QAEDA: The Latin American connection.  Middle East, (334), 28. Retrieved from the EBSCOhost database. 

Discussions

To participate in the following discussions, go to this week’s Discussion link in the left navigation.

  1. State Terrorism in Latin America

As the text indicates, several Latin American countries have experienced state terrorism within the context of governmental rule.  For your initial post, craft a response that address the following questions:

    1. Which Latin American countries have experienced this form of violence?
    2. Why have these forms of government been viewed as “acceptable” by many in the region?
    3. Could state terrorism emerge within the United States?  Why or why not?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.

  1. Latin America and Islamic Jihad 

In Latin America, the Tri-Border Region has played a significant role for terrorist organizations.  In your initial post, address the following:

    1. Where is the Tri-Border Region?
    2. Why is this region strategically important for terrorist organizations?
    3. Which is the most active terrorist group to utilize this area?
    4. What action have local governments taken to fight the use of this region by terrorists?
    5. Evaluate the ramifications of unilateral (or cooperative) US military operations in this region.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7.

FInal Paper

To complete the following final paper, go to this week’s Final Paper link in the left navigation. 

Combating Future Terrorism

Since the September 11 attacks, the future complexion of terrorism has become quite ambiguous.  Subsequently, counter-terrorism strategies have evolved to address terrorist attacks of any form against the United States.  For your Final Paper, you must address the following points:

  1. Decide whether international or domestic terrorism currently constitutes the greatest threat to the United States.
  • Use historic, cultural, and diversity aspects to support your conclusion.
  • Summarize some of the strategies the United States can utilize to prevent future terrorist attacks.
  • Assess whether socio-economic strategies can be utilized to eliminate the motivation of terrorist groups or if military action is the only viable response to terrorists.
  • Use historic, cultural, and diversity aspects of the terrorist populations to support your conclusion.
  • Evaluate if future legislation or constitutional amendments could be utilized to hinder possible terrorist attacks.
  • Analyze if additional powers are needed by the federal government to protect the country from terrorist attacks.
  • Evaluate if the increasing of governmental powers is worth the potential erosion of civil liberties. 
  • Infer what the future of terrorism is and whether the frequency of attacks will increase or decrease over time.  Support your conclusion 

     

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

1.      Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

2.      Must include a title page with the following:

a.       Title of paper

b.      Student’s name

c.       Course name and number

d.      Instructor’s name

e.       Date submitted

3.      Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.

4.      Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.

5.      Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.

6.      Must use at least six scholarly resources, (including a minimum of three from the Ashford University Library) other than the textbook.

7.      Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

8.      Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.